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Accurate line and ground impedance measurements

Measurement of synchronous and zero impedances is used for setting relay protection and for planning work.The measurements are necessary to validate the calculated impedances. The actual impedance is affected by a number of different factors such as earth resistance, water pipes or other buried conductors that cannot be predicted in the calculations. This leads to deviations between calculated and actual impedance and could lead to relay not tripping when they should.


Impedance measurements

Line impedances and k-factors of overhead lines or high-voltage cables

Ground impedances of large systems

Step and touch voltages

Mutual coupling of parallel overhead lines

Coupling of power lines into signal cables

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